Mikulov used to be one of the largest Jewish towns in the former Czechoslovakia, in the southern region called Moravia. At its height in the mid-1800s almost half of the population was Jewish. The town was the seat of the chief rabbinate. There were synagogues, yeshivas, a thriving Jewish quarter, a mikvah, and one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in the country.
By World War II the Jewish population had dwindled, having mainly moved to Vienna, triggered by greater economic opportunities. All remaining Jewish inhabitants in Mikulov were sent to concentration camps. Today, there are no Jews in Mikulov. The Society of Friends of Jewish Culture in Mikulov is made up entirely of non-Jewish volunteers. Members of the Society believe that Jewish history is an integral part of Czech history.
The Society considers it their duty to preserve Jewish monuments and Jewish culture to honor and remember the Jews who once lived in Mikulov and who contributed so much to Czech culture.